For example, temporomandibular [jaw] discomfort, or TMJ, is usually highest in the pre-menstrual period and during menses. For treating pain, studies have shown women and men experience different side effects of analgesic medications. There have also been studies into whether males respond better to opioid medications, but the results are ambiguous at best, she said. However, research has shown there are numerous factors involved in response to pain medicines. Genetic and hormonal differences may be the main cause for any variations, but it's becoming increasingly clear that sociable and psychological elements are also important, said Kelly.Sonnenburg about the findings. Others show that once these pathogens attain sufficient numbers, they make use of inflammation-triggering tricks to wipe out our resident friendly microbes – – free to the pathogens themselves – – because they’ve evolved methods to cope with it. But 1st, they need to surmount a critical hurdle: In the absence of the inflammation they’re trying to induce, they need to reach that critical mass somehow. Our work shows how they go about it after a dose of antibiotics. They take advantage of a temporary spike in obtainable sugars liberated from intestinal mucus left behind by slain commensal microbes.